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Шмидт У., Эмбахер Е.-М. Как условия деятельности, работа воспитателей и активность детей связаны с качеством взаимодействия детей в дошкольных учреждениях? Опыт Австрии

№3 2022 Шмидт У., Эмбахер Е.-М. Как условия деятельности, работа воспитателей и активность детей связаны с качеством взаимодействия детей  в дошкольных учреждениях? Опыт Австрии
Аннотация

Исследования по выявлению предикторов условий деятельности, работы воспитателей дошкольных учреждений и активности детей в отношении качества взаимодействия противоречивы и не могут быть легко перенесены в конкретные национальные дошкольные контексты. В настоящем исследовании рассматривается эта проблема путем оценки качества взаимодействия 185 детей в возрасте 3–5 лет, посещающих 61 дошкольное учреждение в Австрии, с использованием Индивидуальной системы оценивания в классе (inCLASS). При включении контрольных переменных регрессионный анализ показал, что скаффолдинг положительно соотносится с взаимодействием детей с воспитателями, свободный выбор положительно коррелирует с взаимодействием со сверстниками, а «высокопродуктивная» деятельность положительно связана с взаимодействием со сверстниками и ориентацией на выполнение задач. Деятельность под руководством педагога и скаффолдинг отрицательно соотносились
с взаимодействием со сверстниками, а «малопродуктивная» деятельность отрицательно соотносилась с взаимодействием со сверстниками и ориентацией на выполнение задач. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют о том, что по-прежнему остаются неиспользованными возможности поддержки детей.

Фрагмент статьи

Введение

Целью настоящего исследования является изучение взаимосвязи условий деятельности, работы дошкольных педагогов и активности детей с качеством взаимодействия в австрийских дошкольных учреждениях. Качество несемейных учреждений, таких как детские сады, изучалось на протяжении многих лет (Vandell, Wolfe, 2000; Clarke-Stewart , Allhusen, 2005; Viernickel et al., 2016).

При составлении модели качества исследователи часто опираются на «структурно-процессную модель качества» (Kluczniok, Roßbach, 2014, 147), которая включает структурное качество (например, соотношение детей и педагогов), взгляды воспитателей дошкольных учреждений (например, образовательные цели), сотрудничество с семьями (например, консультационные услуги) и качество самого процесса (например, взаимодействие между детьми и воспитателями дошкольных учреждений, также называемое «качеством взаимодействия», например, Schmidt et al., 2018) (Kluczniok, Roßbach, 2014).

В этой статье говорится о качестве взаимодействия, которое, как было показано, является предиктором развития детских компетенций (Tietze et al., 1998; NICHD ECCRN, 2006; Burger, 2010; Ulferts, Wolf, Anders, 2019) и считается центральным компонентом качества образования (Tietze et al., 1998).

Во многих исследованиях изучались предикторы качества взаимодействия, в том числе структурные переменные, характеристики воспитателей дошкольных учреждений и переменные, связанные с ребенком (Essa, Burnham, 2001; Kluczniok, Roßbach, 2014).
Исследования также подчеркивают, что на взаимодействие влияют условия деятельности (например, свободный выбор, Chien et al., 2010), деятельность воспитателей дошкольных учреждений (например, скаффолдинг (теория «строительных лесов» – поддержка педагогом ребенка, Bodrova and Leong, 2005) и деятельность детей (например, когнитивные стимулирующие «высокопродуктивные» виды деятельности) (Kontos, Wilcox-Herzog, 1997; Smidt, 2012).

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* Smidt W. & Embacher E.-M. (2020) How do activity settings, preschool teachers’ activities, and children’s activities relate to the quality of children’s interactions in preschool? Findings from Austria, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 28:6, 864-883, DOI: 10.1080/1350293X.2020.1836586. Публикуется с любезного разрешения журнала European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. CONTACT: Smidt Wilfried, wilfried.smidt@uibk.ac.at, ORCID: 0000-0002-8289-1577

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Правообладателем настоящей статьи разрешается её использование только для личного некоммерческого использования в образовательных целях. Издатель не несёт ответственности за содержание материалов статьи.

Ключевые слова

качество взаимодействия, условия деятельности, работа воспитателей дошкольных учреждений, активность детей, Австрия